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Naperville, Illinois: When their pregnancy delivered a blow to doctors doing sex tests

Craig R. Gagnon 2401 Fraggle Drive Naperville, IL 60540

When a six-month pregnant Pragati Jadhav-Patil walked out of a shady scanning centre in Malegaon after undergoing a sex determination test in 2013, she was a proud woman. The 34-year-old journalist was furthering a social cause.

Pragati, mother of a three-year-old girl, felt prouder on Wednesday when a local court sent the doctor and his brother to jail for three years for carrying out the illegal test. Pragati had posed as a decoy client to expose the wrongdoing.

The court convicted Dr Sumit Deore and his radiologist brother Dr Abhijit Deore under the Pre-Conception & Pre – Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act (PCPNDT), a law brought out to check illegal sex tests, which aid female foeticides.

“My efforts made an impact and I am glad that I could save some lives by participating in the sting operation,” said Pragati, who and her husband Shailendra, a journalist too, work in Satara district.

Pragati was a part of an initiative by advocate Varsha Deshpande who has so far carried out nearly 50 sting operations on unscrupulous doctors offering to reveal the sex of unborn babies through her non-profit Lek Ladaki Abhiyan.

“I readily agreed to pose as a decoy customer as I have been covering this issue for many years and wanted to contribute as a woman,” said Pragati.

Among the many feathers in the NGO’s cap is the sensational 2010 Beed case involving Dr Sudam and Dr Saraswati Munde.

“In the old act, women used to be made an accused. That has been amended in the new law and it has given us the power to expose these doctors who are doing sex determination tests and illegal abortions.”


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Sharvari Tupkar, wife of Ravikant Tupkar, chairman of Maharashtra State Textiles Corporation, was involved in three sting operations – in Thane, Rasayani and Panvel – during her first pregnancy in 2011. The couple are parents to a five-year-old girl and expecting their second child.

Pragati Jadhav-Patil posed as a decoy in 2013 when she was six months pregnant

“In all three cases, the doctors easily disclosed the baby’s sex and offered to do abortion at cheap rates. I recorded everything. The cases are going on, but I think we have nailed them.”

The NGO said it takes affidavits from the women who come forward to join their efforts in saving the girl child.

Kailas Jadhav, 39, a coordinator at Lek Ladaki Abhiyan, has posed as a father in many exposes. “I have done short films and a documentary. I sing for the movement. I have acted as a father who is under family pressure to have a son and is ready to kill the unborn daughter. We have done it with the support of appropriate authorities.”

Kailas Jadhav posed as husband of a pregnant woman in a sting operation

Akhil Bhartiya Janwadi Mahila Sanghtana and Tathapi is another NGO that has contributed immensely to the cause. The organisation had done a sting in the heart of Pune at gynaecologist Dr Makarand Ranade’s hospital. Dr Ranade died, but a case against his associates is still on.

Social workers Prajakta Usha Vinayak and her husband Achyut Borgaonkar posed as a couple for the NGO. “Dr Ranade sent us to his friend’s clinic for the sonography and he advised her to arrange an abortion on the outskirts of Pune. I wish we had seen him getting punished.”


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West Valley City, Utah: First Successful Brain Transplant

Robert J. Amann 2433 North Street West Valley City, UT 84119

Recently, scientists at the University of Southern North Dakota – Baltimore performed the first successful human brain transplant. Said the chief neurosurgeon, Dr. Cranial Head, MD, “This is a breakthrough of unprecedented magnitude. I’m ecstatic that all our research and hard work finally paid off. We couldn’t be more pleased with how things turned out.”

The patient, who only agreed to be called Jose Ivanovich O’Malley, III for anonymity reasons, suffered a massive anterior communicating arterial stroke that left him severely incapacitated. He was a veterinarian at a local clinic before his stroke. His family heard about the research Dr. Head’s team was doing with rats and contacted him about the possibility of being his first human subject. Dr. Head agreed immediately, “I saw this as the perfect opportunity to advance our research out of animals and into humans. We’ve had great success – recently – with brain transplants in rats so it was only logical to start human trials.”

“This new brain transplant surgery is quite remarkable,” said Dr. Head. “My colleague, Dr. Inis Wu, and I first came up with the idea 40 years ago while we were competing in a triathlon. It came out of the blue, really, neither of us are quite sure why we thought of it but here we are.”

What’s remarkable about the surgery is that it is done all under local anesthetic and the patient is kept talking throughout the procedure, except for the time when the brains are switched (during this time the patient is placed on life support). In this case, the transplanted brain came from a local high school physics teacher who suffered a sudden and unexpected heart attack. He was not only young but also in good health. His family has chosen to also remain anonymous. The transplanted brain is removed from the original body and cooled to halt neuronal death. The end of the severed spinal column is treated with a new nanoglue that automatically splices individual axons to the new spinal cord when the transplant brain is placed on top.

“It’s incredible,” said Dr. Head, “surprisingly we don’t have much work to do because with this new nanoglue the process of reconnecting nerve fibers is automatic. It only takes 4 minutes. We just inspect the brain and spinal cord to make sure everything is lined up correctly. The nanoglue is also applied to areas like the optic nerves, that need to be spliced into the new brain.”

After the surgery, Jose made a speedy recovery. Within 24 hours he was moving his limbs and within a week he was walking and talking. His wife said, “It’s a miracle. We thought that Jose was gone forever but Dr. Head saved him. He doesn’t know who any of us are, of course, and calls himself Stephen but we are all willing to work with the new Jose and learn to love him and hope he will learn to love us.” The medical team, however, remains baffled why Jose insists his name is Stephen. When asked if he planned on returning to work at his veterinary clinic, Jose stated that he couldn’t wait to return to teaching physics: “I’ve always had a love of physics. There’s something about gravity research that really attracts me.” Jose doesn’t remember any of his past self or his work as a veterinarian.


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Birmingham, Alabama: Vaginal Tightening

Oliver V. Roach 548 Brookside Drive Birmingham, AL 35209


Often referred to as a “Designer Vagina”, many women choose to undergo vaginal surgery, or cosmetic gynecology, for various reasons. It can often be because they are dissatisfied with their genital appearance or would like to increase their sexual experience.


Vaginal tightening is particularly popular with new mums. Following childbirth, often the muscles of the vagina will lose elasticity and begin to sag. This relaxation of muscle tone, causing a loosening of the vaginal muscles and surrounding tissue, can also occur as women begin to age. Vaginal tightening surgery aims to assist with the muscle tone of the vagina by ensuring the muscles and supporting tissues are tightened.

The subject of vaginal surgery is no longer taboo meaning that women who feel uncomfortable with the appearance of their vagina, or who may have felt discomfort or even embarrassment have the opportunity to have it rectified with a procedure carried out by the very best cosmetic surgeons.

The procedure is carried out under general anaesthetic. You will also be required to stay overnight in either MYA’s amazing Fitzroy Hospital in Central London or a private hospital in the North.


We use dissolvable stitches as standard for our vaginal tightening procedure. In the period immediately following your surgery, it is important to keep your incisions clean and dry. Approximately 7 to 14 days following the procedure you will notice any tenderness and swelling start to subside. We recommend wearing loose and comfortable clothing during this time, while sexual and physical activity is not recommended until at least 6 weeks after your post- op surgeon consultation.


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Joplin, Missouri: A brief history of being buried alive

Raul A. Hicks 1343 Chandler Drive Joplin, MO 64801

Imagine you have a rare disorder, not unlike epilepsy, that causes your heart to slow to a near standstill. Imagine you black out one day and wake up in darkness in a small box, the smell of pine and cement heavy in your nostrils. You scream, but no one can hear you . You push at the top of the box, but it's not budging. Your breathing quickens. It slowly dawns on you — you've been buried alive.

And you're far from the first person who this has ever happened to.

The Mummies of Mexico

Like all of the 119 mummies in El Museo de las Mumias, Ignacia Aguilar fell victim to a cholera epidemic that swept Guanajuato, Mexico in 1833. The deceased were buried quickly to prevent the spread of disease in above ground mausoleums. Twenty years later, the local government disinterred some of the bodies and discovered they'd been naturally mummified. Today, the mummies are on display in the dimly lit museum's glass cases, where they stand upright against a wall.

But the story of one mummy, named Ignacia, is terrifying. Her hands are balled together above her heart. Her left elbow points downward. At first glance, her head appears to be resting on her elevated right arm. Upon closer inspection, Ignacia's teeth are dug into the forearm. Fingernail scratches run jagged in all directions across her forehead, and what little of her mouth is visible beneath the right arm is caked with dried blood. Her body was discovered face down in its coffin. No doubt about it. Ignacia Aguilar was buried alive.

Records indicate that Ignacia was epileptic and suffered from a rare concurrent disorder that lowered her heart rate so much it seemed not to beat at all. Imagine the young girl waking up, caught between a limited air supply and eternity amidst the scent of pine and cement. Scientists speculate the average person can survive between one and 18 hours in a modern coffin, depending on body size. It's impossible to guess how long tiny Ignacia in a 19th century mausoleum held out. However long it took, it's difficult to fathom a worse way to go. Perhaps being flayed by Soviet infantry.

Live Burial as Punishment

Since antiquity, premature burial has been employed as a means of capital punishment in various nations. In ancient Rome, Vestal Virgins who broke their vows of celibacy were immured in small caves. Ditto for rapists of virgins. In Middle Age Germany, live burial was reserved for women who committed infanticide. In medieval Italy, remorseless murderers were buried alive, headfirst, with their feet sticking above ground. Under 13th century Danish law, live burial was the execution of choice for female thieves. Male thieves were beheaded, which is, of course, preferable.

Women who killed their husbands in feudal Russia were buried alive in a sacred killing site known as The Pit. It's said that the Druid St. Oran offered to be buried alive as a sacrifice in order to banish the devil from meddling with the construction of a new abbey. Sometime later, his still-living body was dug up, but when Oran spoke of visiting an afterlife without heaven or hell, he was reburied for good.

There are numerous modern examples of mass live burials during wartime. Japanese soldiers buried Chinese POWs at Nanking. Nazis interred shtetl elders in Belarus and Ukraine. In the Killing Fields. During the Great Leap Forward. Last year, ISIS militants buried groups of Yazidi women and children alive in Iraq.

Horrible deaths all. But something about the accidental premature burial strikes even greater terror, perhaps because it's an equal opportunity killer. It renders one utterly powerless, and features the element of surprise. The occasional incident of a breathing body tumbling from a coffin dropped by some hapless pallbearer, or a screaming corpse on the embalming table, put some degree of fear concerning premature burial into the ether since at least the 1st century A.D. The only notable recorded case prior to the 19th century was philosopher John Duns Scotus, whose body was found outside his coffin upon the reopening of his tomb. However, beginning in the late 18th century, the fear became more widespread and peaked in the 1890's, when Italian psychiatrist Enrico Morselli gave it a name: Taphephobia.

George Washington willed that his body was not to be buried for two days following his death, just in case. A group of Victorians organized The Society for the Prevention of People Being Buried Alive in 1896. A number of “safety coffins” were invented in the l880's. One, patented in 1882 by U.S. inventor J.G. Krichbaum, featured a periscope that could be opened from within the coffin in order to supply air and signal that an error had been made. In 1885, The New York Times reported that one “Jenkins” of Buncombe County was discovered turned on his side in his coffin, and all of his hair was ripped from his scalp.

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A year later the paper of record reported on a Canadian girl named “Collins” who was found in her coffin with her knees tucked against her chin. South Carolinian Julia Legare was placed in the family crypt in 1852. When her brother died 15 years later, the crypt was reopened, and the remains of Julia were found in a pile at the foot of the entrance. As late as 1895 there are reports of people being discovered alive in the morgue. One of the happier cases concerns Eleanor Markham, a 22-year-old upstate New York woman who was heard banging on the roof of her coffin as it was pulled from the hearse in 1894. Her Doctor rushed to her aid and said, “Hush child. You are all right. It is a missive easily rectified.”

Estimates of how commonly people were prematurely buried in the last century prior vary widely. In 1905, reformer William Tebb compiled 219 accounts of near-live burial, 149 of actual live burials, and 10 cases of accidental live dissection on the autopsy table.

The Live-Burial Epidemic

Why, though, do the reports of premature burial, aside from Scotus, not begin to appear regularly until the late 18thand early 19th centuries, and why do they seem to accelerate toward the end of the latter century? The answer is as phantasmagoric as the 19th century itself, that confluence of scientific discovery, the rise of mass journalism and the prophetic tendencies of Gothic literature. The ground of that century featured a strange soil sprouting new anxieties from the moribund world historical.

The disease that killed Ignacia Aguilar simultaneously increased and exposed the prevalence of premature burial. Cholera first spread from India to Russia in 1817, and shortly thereafter followed trade routes to Europe and the United States. Germ theory was neither credited nor widely known, but by this time there was a general understanding that disease was communicable through contact with the dead. During the cholera epidemics of the 19th century, from England to Guanajuato, the general order was for rapid burial, often in mass graves. On occasion, between pronouncement and the sod, a body was found displaying greater or lesser signs of sentience.

In 1854, physician John Snow mapped cholera cases in central London, observing high concentrations of infection near a water pump that was polluted with fecal matter. Government officials found his suggestion that the disease was caused by fecal-oral contact “too depressing” and the theory was dismissed. After the experiments of Louise Pasteur, German physician Robert Koch finally formulated a system for identifying the microorganisms that cause certain diseases, including cholera and tuberculosis in 1884. Koch's postulates triggered a fervent autopsy craze in the Western academies. Whether sanctioned or extralegal, disinterment by men of noble reason abounded in the last two decades of the century, which explains some of those horrific tomb discoveries mentioned previously.

The Persistence of Taphephobia

In part, taphephobia is a symbolic internalization of a dying God. The publication of Darwin's “The Origin of Species” in 1859 dismantled the Vatican and Church of England's cosmology – the static hierarchy of all His creations - and with it the certainty of a peaceful afterlife.

Rising literacy rates and the patenting of Koenig and Bauer's double-sided steam printing press in 1810 revolutionized the newspaper and book industries, popularizing macabre stories of premature burial. Edgar Allan Poe, above all, capitalized on the phobia and institutionalized it as a trope of Gothic lit. Three of his greatest short stories, “The Premature Burial,” “The Fall of the House of Usher” and “The Cask of Amontillado” center on premature burials, and are responsible for fueling the phobia with visceral expressiveness. In “The Premature Burial,” the protagonist describes his unrelenting anxiety over the title subject, then inevitably wills it to being. In the latter two stories, premature burial becomes a kind of trespass against what's supposed to be impossible, against the world of the living and the world of the dead. Here is a taste of the horror when what was supposed to be buried – whether bodies or information - becomes known.

What's fascinating about these three Poe tales is how prescient they are of the theories on taphephobia later introduced by Sigmund Freud. In his 1919 essay on the uncanny, Freud describes the prevalence of taphephobia among his patients as a “transformation of another phantasy which had originally nothing terrifying about it at all, but was qualified by a certain lasciviousness – the phantasy, I mean, of intra-uterine existence.”

In other words, the departed are like recollections of the womb. They should remain in the dirt, the subconscious. When we imagine our own premature burial, our womb memories wreak havoc on our consciousness. Like cognitive dissonance forged by a phallus thrust into the anterior cingular cortex, premature burial violates the division between life and death that allows Western minds to move their impermanent bodies through daily opposed to screaming their way to the sanitarium. Extrapolating Freudian, premature burial is a perfect symbol for the exposure of the subterranean, the terror of fresh knowledge, whether it be repressed desire, doubt and anxiety over religious or scientific faith, or profound shifts in the political paradigm. In short, the zeitgeist of the taphephobia era.

Medical advances and changes in funerary custom have nearly eradicated incidents of accidental premature burial in the 21st century. The phobia remains for many, of course, but not on the level a cultural epidemic. But if ever you'd like to experience the gravity of deprivation and existential terror that plagued the Victorian psyche, it can be easily done atop a dusty hill in Guanajuato, where the bodies of the dead stand half-clothed in tattered rags before the beyond.


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Bigelow, Iowa: ‘Masters of Sex’ Recap - I Will Fix You

Eddie S. Oyola 1150 Centennial Farm Road Bigelow, IA 56117

If only lives could be mended as easily as a bit of nail polish can fix a run in a woman’s stocking, or as quickly as a lullaby can soothe a baby.

Or as sweetly as shared confidences can build friendships.

Lester (Kevin Christy) and Barbara (Betsy Brandt) seem to hope that by swapping secrets and facing the truth about their own sexual problems they can find a path toward healing and resolution, something that Dr. William Masters has failed to provide.

They confess to having given up on sex, but there was a hint of promise for those two, in more ways than one. The same may be true for other characters in this series. But with just two episodes left in the second season, “Masters of Sex” has taken a long time to move beyond some of the underlying personal and professional conflicts that have hindered the career trajectories of these research pioneers into human sexuality Bill Masters (Michael Sheen) and Virginia Johnson (Lizzy Caplan).

In this episode, Bill faces immense pressures at work and with his family, and is haunted by the failures in his past hospital career and fearful of being not being able to provide for his family.

Toward the end of the hour, in their elegant hotel room, Bill surrenders any pretense of composure as he crumples into the arms of the only person he trusts, Virginia. If the closing embrace between the two – and Bill’s gasping sounds are what they appear to be – the couple’s complex relationship is shifting into another level of discovery.

Betty’s Best Lines From the start, Bill faces the realities of running a business as the lights literally go out in his offices while he’s examining a patient. And Betty Moretti (Annaleigh Ashford) comically explains to Bill that the clinic’s financial condition is fairly bleak in part because he keeps rejecting possible tenants for the building as too unseemly for his patients to encounter.

If he won’t agree to leasing more space, she argues, he’ll “be doing pelvic exams with a miner’s lamp stuck to your forehead.” And if they don’t achieve a stronger footing come winter to pay for heating, she threatens to hose down the marble floors and turn the lobby into a commercial skating rink.

The Rush of Rivalries Upon learning that another researcher has published a study on sexual dysfunction in a medical journal, Bill worries that their own work will be eclipsed. He suggests to Virginia that they hire a publicist to plan how best to attain recognition.

While she initially dislikes the idea — mentioning the expense — she warms to the notion once Bill introduces her to a public relations expert, Shep Tally, who is played by none other than the guest star and director of this episode, Adam Arkin.

Bill tells Virginia that Mr. Tally represented Dr. John Rock, one of the researchers who developed the birth control pill (which was approved in 1960 for general use as a contraceptive).

But when the two of them begin arguing over the pace of their work and how to present it publicly, Shep seems charmed by their back-and-forth and proposes putting them on television. “The two of you could finally teach America how to have sex,” he says.

Later, Bill balks at hiring Shep, fretting to Virginia that he was hoping to achieve renown through articles in medical journals not in TV Guide, and his ego looms quite ambitiously here. “I want to win a Nobel Prize,” Bill declares. “Imagine what will happen when grandma turns on the TV and sees the two of us discussing swollen labia.”

Most interesting to me was Bill’s reminder of the public’s revulsion at sex pioneers, notably Dr. Wilhelm Reich, a psychoanalyst whose views on the social and physical therapeutic value of orgasm first caused a stir in Europe and then here in the States after he emigrated and was selling boxes called the “orgone energy accumulator.” (It’s quite well explained in this review of Christopher Turner’s 2011 book, “Adventures in the Orgasmatron: Wilhelm Reich and the Invention of Sex.” While the review is by no means the definitive account, it’s a great synopsis. So is this one by Christopher Hitchens.)

While Reich’s boxes apparently enthralled the likes of Norman Mailer, William Burroughs and others in the 1950s and continued into the 1960s during the so-called sexual revolution, the Food and Drug Administration pursued charges against Reich when he defied orders to stop selling them and making certain claims about them. He died in prison, Bill notes, and his books were burned.

(Sometimes this show evokes such rich history that I find myself pleasantly lost in researching the references. And learning along the way with some amusement that Reich’s machine was apparently the inspiration for Woody Allen’s orgasmatron in “Sleeper.”)

Life (and Lice) Lessons for Libby My dives into history took yet another turn as Bill’s wife, Libby (Caitlin FitzGerald), refused to stay on the sidelines when Robert Franklin (Jocko Sims) and other civil rights workers began canvassing a St. Louis housing project, the Pruitt-Igoe, to solicit support for a rent strike.

Robert warns that the projects are infested with rats and lice (“I think we both know how you feel about lice,” Robert reminds her of her shameful actions toward his sister, Coral, in a previous episode). But she shows up anyway, having enlisted Virginia to be her alibi — Bill disapproves of her volunteer work with the Congress of Racial Equality. And she becomes quite pleased with herself for persuading tenants to consider the strike, although it’s more than evident that she is also seeking Robert’s approval and trying to prove to him and perhaps to Virginia and herself that she can be more than a “bored housewife.”

(Readers keep searching for a romantic blossoming between Robert and Libby. Did you catch both Bill’s and Virginia’s curious glances toward the interactions between Robert and Libby inside the CORE offices? Are those clues?)

And while the show’s writers seem intent on broadening Libby’s role into a stronger female character, which is noble, I suppose, they also use the dawn of the civil rights era to provide a historical sense of place.

A rent strike did occur in the Desoto-Carr neighborhood, with its warren of high-rise buildings where a predominantly impoverished black populace lived in the 1960s. The strike was considered one, if not the first, of such successful actions. (The buildings have their own historical place in discussions about urban renewal — you can look it up — and they have since been demolished.)

Brutal Bonds The returning appearance of Christian Borle as Bill’s brother, Frank, results in wrenching drama for the second week in a row, as their sibling rivalry descends again into a twist of memories about their father. Bill will only refer to him as a monster, and Frank’s persistent efforts to “make amends” as part of his recovery from alcoholism lead to a violent conclusion.

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Everyone in their lives, from Frank’s wife, Pauline (Marin Ireland), to their mother encourages Bill to repair his relationship with his younger brother. Bill insists to Pauline that there are no fences to mend.

Yet Frank seems just as intent on yanking out even more posts in the tattered family fence, projecting his alcoholism onto his brother’s drinking, and in a scene following a car accident injuring their mother, onto her affinity for a nightly cocktail or two.

I won’t mock the 12 Steps of recovery taught to alcoholics through A.A., as Bill and his mother do in a rather unusual alignment that somehow affords them another avenue toward reconciliation. “Lullabies never worked with you,” Essie (Ann Dowd) tells Bill as she sings Bill’s baby to sleep early on in this episode. Frank, though, would hum away, she added, relating that her younger son now explains away his chipper demeanor as an act of self-preservation.

For inexplicable reasons, Bill refuses to accept Frank’s version of an unhappy childhood at the hands of their abusive father, and it winds the tension up to one of the ugliest scenes this season.

The feud over which of the two owns the most suffering-filled upbringing is a repeat refrain from last week and still confounds me. Perhaps Bill’s anger at Frank — deriding him as a “pathetic clown” and asking what kind of man would forgive their monster of a father — represents denial in its purest form of pathological repression. Frank earnestly tries to persuade Bill that his own outbursts, and his impulsive behavior, mirror their father’s behavior as a drunk.

Brutally insulting Frank as he did to his mother years ago when he banished her from the Masters household, Bill resurrects the coping mechanism he used against his father. It’s the one that he divulged to Virginia in “The Fight” episode: He yells at Frank: “I bet once he threw the first punch you begged for mercy. You know I never begged, so why did you?”

After accusing Frank of being weak, not just a sloppy alcoholic, the two brawl in Bill’s office — a blow-by-blow resort to the methods employed by their father when they were boys.

It may seem a trite ploy, the abused continuing a cycle of violence and two brothers using each other as punching bags, but nevertheless, this scene also breaks Bill wide open.

The Fixer After the fight, Bill runs to his refuge, the hotel, where Virginia had been waiting to act out another sexcapade to help Bill overcome his impotence. (An earlier scene in which Virginia tied Bill’s hands behind his back, bared her breasts but wouldn’t allow him to touch her, was depicted so sensuously that I think her methods might have cured a viewer or two.) Shocked at his bleeding wounds and bloodied shirt, Virginia rushes to comfort him. “You’re the only one who can fix me,” Bill had told her during a flashback scene in which they talked about his problems.

And only to Virginia does he finally admit that he abandoned his brother, left him behind as his replacement for their father’s abuse, and then punished him for years.

“I give up,” Bill moans. Virginia kisses his bloodied hands, holding them. He streaks her face with some of the blood running down a cut on his cheek.

Somehow, completely laid bare by his realizations and with Virginia at his side, Bill begins to heal.

Notes and Questions: There were odd scenes between Dr. Playboy (Dr. Austin Langham, acted by Teddy Sears), the new Cal-O-Metric spokesman, and this diet pill’s promoter, Flo. It’s the mirror image of Virginia’s situation with Bill, who as her employer insisted that having sex with him was part of her job description. Flo (Artemis Pebdani) demands regular sex from Austin as a guarantee of his employment, much to his consternation. (Would a female employer really have that kind of gumption in the early 1960s?)

Also not mentioned was how Dr. Lloyd Madden, the psychiatrist with whom Virginia has been posing as Barbara to seek guidance for treating her, was on to Virginia. Is it still credible for Virginia to assert that despite her relationship with a married man (Bill), his marriage is not at risk?

Do you believe, as Frank does, that Bill is an alcoholic? Certainly Bill over-drinks in tense situations, although he refuses to attribute his overall condition to imbibing too many cocktails.


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